Personal Pronouns

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Personal Pronouns Unlike English nouns, which usually do not change form except for the addition of an -s ending to create the plural or the apostrophe + s to create the possessive, personal pronouns (which stand for persons or things) change form according to their various uses within a sentence. Thus I is used as the subject of a sentence (I am happy.), me is used as an object in various ways (He hit me. He gave me a book. Do this for me.), and my is used as the possessive form (That's my car.
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  Personal Pronouns Unlike English nouns, which usually do not change form except for the addition of an -s ending to createthe plural or the apostrophe + s to create the possessive, personal pronouns (which stand for persons or things)change form according to their various uses within a sentence. Thus I  is used as the subject of a sentence (I amhappy.), me is used as an object in various ways (He hit me. He gave me a book. Do this for me.), and my  isused as the possessive form (That's my car.) The same is true of the other personal pronouns: the singular youand he/she/it and the plural we, you, and they. These forms are called cases . An easily printable chart isavailable that shows the various  Cases of the Personal Pronouns .Personal pronouns can also be characterized or distinguished by person . First person refers to thespeaker(s) or writer(s) ( I for singular, we for plural). Second person refers to the person or people beingspoken or written to ( you for both singular and plural). Third person refers to the person or people being spokenor written about ( he, she, and it for singular, they for plural). The person of a pronoun is also demonstratedin the chart Cases of the Personal Pronouns . As you will see there, each person can change form, reflecting itsuse within a sentence. Thus, I becomes me when used as an object ( She left me ) and my when used in itspossessive role (That's my car ); they becomes them in object form ( I like them ) and their in possessive( That's just their way ).When a personal pronoun is connected by a conjunction to another noun or pronoun, its case does notchange. We would write I am taking a course in Asian history ; if Talitha is also taking that course, we wouldwrite Talitha and Iare taking a course in Asian history. (Notice that Talitha gets listed before I does. This isone of the few ways in which English is a polite language.) The same is true when the object form is called for: Professor Vendetti gave all her books to me ; if Talitha also received some books, we'd write Professor Vendettigave all her books to Talitha and me . For more on this, see cases of pronouns .   If one is interested in the uses of  one as a numerical and impersonalpronoun, one should click the enter button. When a pronoun and a noun are combined (which will happen with the plural first- and second-personpronouns), choose the case of the pronoun that would be appropriate if the noun were not there. ã Westudents are demanding that the administration give us two hours for lunch. ã The administration has managed to putusstudents in a bad situation. With the second person, we don't really have a problem because the subject form is the same as the object form, you : ã You students are demanding too much. ã We expect you students to behave like adults. Among the possessive pronoun forms, there is also what is called the nominative possessive : mine,yours, ours, theirs. ã Look at those cars. Theirs is really ugly; ours is beautiful. ã This new car is mine. ã Mine is newer than yours. Demonstrative Pronouns The family of demonstratives (this/that/these/those/such) can behave either as pronouns or as determiners . As pronouns, they identify or point to nouns. ã That  is incredible! (referring to something you just saw)  ã I will never forget this . (referring to a recent experience) ã Such is my belief. (referring to an explanation just made)As determiners, the demonstratives adjectivally modify a noun that follows. A sense of relative distance (in timeand space) can be conveyed through the choice of these pronouns/determiners: ã These [pancakes sitting here now on my plate] are delicious. ã Those [pancakes that I had yesterday morning] were even better. ã This [book in my hand] is well written; ã that[book that I'm pointing to, over there, on the table] is trash.A sense of emotional distance or even disdain can be conveyed with the demonstrative pronouns: ã You're going to wear these? ã This is the best you can do?Pronouns used in this way would receive special stress in a spoken sentence.When used as subjects, the demonstratives, in either singular or plural form, can be used to refer to objectsas well as persons. ã This is my father. ã Thatis my book.In other roles, however, the reference of demonstratives is non-personal. In other words, when referring tostudents, say, we could write Those were loitering near the entrance during the fire drill (as long as it is perfectlyclear in context what those refers to). But we would not write The principal suspended those for two days ;instead, we would have to use those as a determiner and write The principal suspended those students for twodays. This; that; these; those; none and neither  are Demonstrative Pronouns that substitute  nouns  whenthe nouns they replace can be understood from the context. They also indicate whether they are replacing singular  or    plural  words and give the location of the object:EXAMPLES OF DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS: This :    singular   and near the speaker  That :   singular  and at a distance from the speaker  These :   plural  and near the speaker  Those :    plural and at a distance from the speaker Eg. 1.: You take these bags and I'll take those . - ( Those refers to bags that are at a distance from thespeaker.)Eg. 2: We bought this last year  - ( This refers to something that is sing., near the speaker and readilyunderstood in the context of the conversation.) Interrogative Pronouns The interrogative pronouns (who/which/what) introduce questions. ( What  is that? Who will help me? Which do you prefer?) Which is generally used with more specific reference than what  . If we're taking a quiz and I ask Which questions give you the most trouble? , I am referring to specific questions on that quiz. If I ask Whatquestions give you most trouble ? I could be asking what kind of questions on that quiz (or what kind of question,generically, in general) gives you trouble. The interrogative pronouns also act as Determiners :It doesn't matter which beer you buy. He doesn't know whose car he hit. In this determiner role, they are sometimes called interrogative adjectives .  Like the relative pronouns ,the interrogative pronouns introduce  noun clauses , and like the relativepronouns, the interrogative pronouns play a subject role in the clauses they introduce: ã We know who is guilty of this crime.   ã I already told the detective what   I know about it.   ã Interrogative Pronouns ã 1. Interrogative Pronouns ask questions. ã 2. The interrogative pronouns are : -- who, whose, whom which and what  . ã a) Who, whose, and whom refer to  person . ã  Examples : - ã Who said so ? ã Whose book is this ? ã Whom do you love ? ã b) Which refers to  persons or  things ã  Examples :- ã Which of these boys will win the prize ? ã Which of these books do you like best ? ã c) What refers to lower animals and things . ã  Examples :- ã Q : What  have you seen in the mountain? ã A : I have seen a tiger. ã Q : What  did he buy ? ã A : He bought a house. ã Note -- All interrogative pronouns have the same form for the plural as for the singular     PERSONAL PRONOUNS  Fill in the blanks with suitable pronouns. (subject/object)1. Does _____ (her, she) know that _____ (me, I) was absent? Does she know that I was absent?2. Please tell _____ (he, him) _____ (I, me) have obtained a degree in Chemistry.Please tell him I have obtained a degree in Chemistry.3. I remember that _____ (they, them) bought the fruits from _____ (we, us). I remember that they bought the fruits from us .4. Please don't tell ______ (she, her) about _____ (I, me). Please don't tell her  about me .5. _____ can swim because _____ has webbed feet. It can swim because it has webbed feet.6. I met Alice yesterday. _____ invited _____ to her house. I met Alice yesterday. She invited me toher house.7. Jane has a cat; _____ likes to play with _____. Jane has a cat; she likes to play with it .8. When the dog chased John, _____ ran as fast as _____ could. When the dog chased John, he ranas fast as he could.9. My uncle works in a factory. _____ says _____ is a noisy place. My uncle works in a factory. He says it is a noisy place.10. The teacher said to the class, When _____ finished your work, please pass _____ up to me. 11. Peter is my friend._________ lives in England. ________ met for a long time ago.12. Tina works as a secretary. ________ is married and has two children.13. It’s Zulaikha’s birthday. We have bought _______ a nice present.14. Supardi and Soon Keat went to London last year. __________ wanted to improve their English.15. Sock Rou is my best friend. ________ have received a letter from ________.DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS – THIS, THAT, THESE, THOSEFill in the blanks with the suitable demonstrative pronouns (this, that, these and those). 1.  _______________ pencil is not mine. (singular, near)2.Please hand me ___________ book. (singular, far) 3.  _________ dog is mean. (singular, far) 4. Vanessa, can I borrow ________ colour pencils? (plural, far) 5.  __________ houses are all the same. (plural, far) 6.  __________ rulers are all mine. (plural, near) 7.  __________ ball is mine. (singular, far) 8.  __________ car is fast. (singular, near) 9. Let’s play _________ games! (plural, far) 10. My mother likes ____________ clothes. (plural, near)11.Did you wear _________ sweater yesterday? (singular, far)12.When will we have ____________ test? (singular, far)13.___________ English class is hard. (singular, near) 14. When is ____________ TV show that you like? (singular, far)15.My family lives in ____________ house. (singular, near)
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