Soil & Water Interaction and Its Implications in Aquaculture

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Soil water interaction in an aquaculture ecosystem is described in lucid language. why mud is called the chemical laboratory of pond, the chemistry of pond mud, the mechanism of releasing nutrinets from from mud, reactions and processes involved in an aquaculture ecosystem are described along with managemnt measures to tackle the bad effects of several reactions and processes are highleted in this presentation.
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  1 Soil and Water InteractionSoil and Water Interactionand Its Importance In Aquacultureand Its Importance In Aquaculture Dr.Dr.SubhenduSubhenduDattaDatta Sr. ScientistSr. ScientistCIFE, Kolkata CentreCIFE, Kolkata Centre SALT LAKE CITY, KOLKATA, INDIASALT LAKE CITY, KOLKATA, INDIA IntroductionIntroduction  Soil is a key factor in aquaculture. Most of the pond is built f Soil is a key factor in aquaculture. Most of the pond is built f romromand in soil.and in soil.  Many dissolved and suspended substances are derived fromMany dissolved and suspended substances are derived fromcontact with soil.contact with soil.  Pond soil are store house for many substance that accumulate inPond soil are store house for many substance that accumulate inthe pond ecosystem and chemical and biological processthe pond ecosystem and chemical and biological processoccurring in the surface layer of pond soil influences wateroccurring in the surface layer of pond soil influences waterquality and aquaculture.quality and aquaculture.  Hence an understanding of soil properties and the reaction andHence an understanding of soil properties and the reaction andprocess in soil can be useful in pond aquaculture.process in soil can be useful in pond aquaculture.  2 POND SOILPOND SOIL  Material composing the bottom of streams, lake and ponds areMaterial composing the bottom of streams, lake and ponds areknown as sediment, mud or soil.known as sediment, mud or soil.   The pond bottom is srcinally made of terrestrial The pond bottom is srcinally made of terrestrial’’s soil and whens soil and whenthe pond is filled with water the bottom becomes wet.the pond is filled with water the bottom becomes wet.  Mixture of solid materials and with water is calledMixture of solid materials and with water is called‘‘mudmud’’..  Solids settle from the pond water and cover the pond bottom isSolids settle from the pond water and cover the pond bottom is‘‘sedimentsediment’’..  Basic function of pond soil is an embankment that impound waterBasic function of pond soil is an embankment that impound waterandandforms barrier to seepage so that pond will hold the water.forms barrier to seepage so that pond will hold the water.  Substances continually settle from pond water into the pond bottSubstances continually settle from pond water into the pond bottomom  For exampleFor example--suspended solid, particles of soil and organic matter thatsuspended solid, particles of soil and organic matter thateroded from pond bottom and insides of levees by water current aeroded from pond bottom and insides of levees by water current andnd wave action, manure and uneaten feed from management inputs and wave action, manure and uneaten feed from management inputs andremains of plants and animals produced with in the pond.remains of plants and animals produced with in the pond.  Substances also enter from solid phase of soil from the aqueousSubstances also enter from solid phase of soil from the aqueousphasephasethrough ion exchange, adsorption and precipitation.through ion exchange, adsorption and precipitation.  For exampleFor example--potassium can be exchanged for otherpotassium can be exchanged for othercationcationon the soil,on the soil,phosphorus can be adsorbed by soil and CaCOphosphorus can be adsorbed by soil and CaCO 33 may precipitate frommay precipitate fromsolution and become a part of the bottom soil matrix.solution and become a part of the bottom soil matrix.  3  Substances that enter the soil may be stored permanently, or theSubstances that enter the soil may be stored permanently, or they may y may be transformed to other substance by physical, chemical or biolobe transformed to other substance by physical, chemical or biologicalgicalmeans and lost from the pond ecosystem.means and lost from the pond ecosystem.  For exampleFor example--phosphorus adsorbed by pond soil can become buriedphosphorus adsorbed by pond soil can become buriedin the sediment and lost from circulation with the pool of availin the sediment and lost from circulation with the pool of availableablephosphorus.phosphorus.  Organic matter deposited on the pond bottom is decomposed toOrganic matter deposited on the pond bottom is decomposed toinorganic carbon and released to the water as carbon dioxide.inorganic carbon and released to the water as carbon dioxide.  Nitrogen compound may be denitrified by pond soil microorganismNitrogen compound may be denitrified by pond soil microorganismand lost to the atmosphere as nitrogen gas.and lost to the atmosphere as nitrogen gas.  Bacteria, fungi, algae, higher aquatic plants, small invertebratBacteria, fungi, algae, higher aquatic plants, small invertebratesesand other organism know as benthos live in and on the bottomand other organism know as benthos live in and on the bottomof the soil.of the soil.  Crustaceans and some species of fishes spend much time on theCrustaceans and some species of fishes spend much time on thebottom soil and many fish lay eggs in the nest built in thebottom soil and many fish lay eggs in the nest built in thebottom.bottom.  Benthos serves as food for some aquaculture species.Benthos serves as food for some aquaculture species.  It also involved in gas exchange, primary and secondary It also involved in gas exchange, primary and secondary productivity, decomposition and nutrient cycling.productivity, decomposition and nutrient cycling.  4  Substances stored in the pond soil can be released to the waterSubstances stored in the pond soil can be released to the waterthrough ion exchange, dissolution until equilibrium attainedthrough ion exchange, dissolution until equilibrium attainedbetween solid phase and liquid phase.between solid phase and liquid phase.   The equilibrium concentration may be too low for optimal The equilibrium concentration may be too low for optimalphytoplankton growth or the equilibrium concentration of aphytoplankton growth or the equilibrium concentration of aheavy metal may be too high enough to cause toxicity to aquaticheavy metal may be too high enough to cause toxicity to aquaticanimal.animal.  Microbial decomposition is extremely important because organicMicrobial decomposition is extremely important because organicmatter is oxidized to COmatter is oxidized to CO 22 and ammonia and other nutrientand ammonia and other nutrientelement is released.element is released.  Carbon dioxide and ammonia are highly soluble and quickly Carbon dioxide and ammonia are highly soluble and quickly enter the water.enter the water. Soil PropertiesSoil Properties  Soil consists of weathered mineral organic matter. They are aSoil consists of weathered mineral organic matter. They are aproduct of interaction among parent material, climate andproduct of interaction among parent material, climate andbiological activity.biological activity.  It is well known that soil differ from place to place on the earIt is well known that soil differ from place to place on the earththsurface and beneath a given site the soil profile consists of surface and beneath a given site the soil profile consists of horizontal layers that change in characteristics with depth givehorizontal layers that change in characteristics with depth givennbelow the land surface.below the land surface.   The most active fraction of soil is clay particles, because of  The most active fraction of soil is clay particles, because of electric charge and large surface area and the organic matter, oelectric charge and large surface area and the organic matter, of f its biological activity and high chemical reactivity.its biological activity and high chemical reactivity.
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