AGE OF ABSOLUTISM - FRANCE

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DAY 3 Notes. 1560 Charles IX becomes King of France 10 years old Catherine de Medici – Regent 2 powerful families competing against monarchs and each other for more political power: 1) Guise Catholic 90% of France = Catholic 2) Bourbon
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DAY 3Notes
  • 1560Charles IX becomes King of France
  • 10 years old
  • Catherine de Medici – Regent
  • 2 powerful families competing against monarchs and each other for more political power:
  • 1)Guise
  • Catholic
  • 90% of France = Catholic
  • 2)Bourbon
  • Mostly Catholic, but supported Huguenots to gain political support
  • Catherine tried to control government to keep both families from getting too powerful
  • AGE OF ABSOLUTISM - FRANCEDAY 3Notes
  • 1562 France’s religious wars begin
  • 1572 Charles IX increasingly influenced by Admiral de Coligny (Protestant)
  • Catherine feared France would go to war with Spain and she would lose control over Charles
  • Catherine planned to assassinate Coligny, but it failed
  • an Investigation would prove her involvement
  • she convinced Charles that the Protestants were planning to overthrow him
  • Charles IX – “I consent, but then you must kill all the Huguenots so there are none left to blame me.”
  • August 1572 St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre
  • 6000 Protestants were killed
  • Protestants became militant / wars intensified
  • AGE OF ABSOLUTISM - FRANCEDAY 3Notes
  • RELIGIOUS WARS WERE DESTROYING FRANCE
  • 1574 Henry III became king of France
  • he was Catholic, but gave increased freedoms to Huguenots
  • this angered Catholics, they formed “Catholic League”
  • goal was to reduce Protestant influence in France
  • 1585 Catholics (led by the Guise) revolted against Henry III
  • Henry III joined with Henry of Navarre (Protestant)
  • 1589 Henry III assassinated and Henry of Navarre becomes king of France
  • becomes Henry IV
  • finds it hard to rule in a Catholic majority
  • Politiques began to develop
  • set aside differences to save France
  • France 1st
  • AGE OF ABSOLUTISM - FRANCEDAY 3Notes
  • 1593 Henry IV converts to CATHOLICISM
  • establishing royal authority in France required internal peace
  • “Paris is well worth the mass”
  • 1598 Henry IV issues EDICT OF NANTES
  • allowed Civil and Religious Freedom
  • allowed to trade, go to school, treated in same hospitals
  • given Amnesty for crimes during religious wars
  • ended religious wars
  • 1610 Henry IV assassinated by François Ravaillac(Catholic)
  • Louis XIII (9 year old son) becomes king
  • Marie de Medici – Regent
  • Cardinal Richelieu advisor (Politique)
  • AGE OF ABSOLUTISM - FRANCEDAY 3Notes
  • GOALS OF CARDINAL RICHELIEU
  • create an Absolute Monarchy
  • weaken power of Huguenots
  • Opposed to “State within a State”
  • 3. weaken power of Nobles
  • used Intendants
  • middle class
  • “civil servants” appointed by the king to make sure his rule was being followed all over France
  • loyal – owed position to king
  • AGE OF ABSOLUTISM - FRANCEDAY 3Notes
  • GOALS OF CARDINAL RICHELIEU
  • 4. expand trade, agriculture, industry
  • 5. weaken Catholic Hapsburgs by siding with Protestants
  • 30 Years War
  • 1648 – Treaty of Westphalia
  • 1643 Louis XIII died replaced by his son - Louis XIV
  • Age 5 (mother Anne acted as regent)
  • AGE OF ABSOLUTISM - FRANCEDAY 4Notes
  • Increasing tension over growing power of French monarchy
  • 1648 Fronde = riots against government
  • Parlement of Paris (Supreme Court) trying to limit the growing authority of the crown
  • rejected new tax plan proposed by government
  • government responded by arresting several judges
  • “Frenchies” rose in revolt
  • growing discontent of nobles wanting more power
  • Increasing frustration of commoners with unfair taxes
  • Fronde scared Louis
  • lost faith in people and vowed never to trust them
  • vowed to never let it happen again
  • AGE OF ABSOLUTISM - FRANCEDAY 4Notes
  • 1661 Louis XIV takes control of France = ABSOLUTE MONARCH
  • believer in Divine Right of Kings
  • “Sun King” (used Sun as his symbol)
  • provider of life
  • “I am the State”
  • used Intendants
  • did not call “Estates General”
  • did not want to empower others to solve problems
  • Versailles
  • leading nobles lived there so he could keep watch on them so they would not develop independent power in their provinces
  • Louis gave them offices / titles, but with no real power
  • Nobles paid NO taxes in exchange for supporting Louis
  • AGE OF ABSOLUTISM - FRANCEDAY 4Notes
  • ECONOMICS
  • Jean Baptiste Colbert - Finance Minister
  • Mercantilism
  • Gold/silver
  • Industry (subsidies, tax benefits, tariffs)
  • Favorable balance of trade
  • Colonies
  • RELIGION
  • Huguenots threat to political and religious unity
  • 1685 – revoked Edict of Nantes
  • Many fled – hurt France’s economy
  • AGE OF ABSOLUTISM - FRANCEAGE OF ABSOLUTISM - FRANCEDAY 4Notes
  • WARS
  • expand and protect French borders
  • Other countries joined against France to keep a “Balance of Power”
  • Hurt French economy
  • 1702 War of the Spanish Succession
  • King Charles II died without a direct heir
  • Louis XIV’s grandson (Philip V) next in line
  • Fear that Spain and France would become allies
  • Balance of Power would be offset
  • Grand Alliance (England, Netherlands, Austria)
  • 1713 – Treat of Utrecht
  • Philip V remain Spanish king, but could not join France
  • AGE OF ABSOLUTISM - FRANCEDAY 4NotesLegacy of Louis XIVPositive
  • strongest country in Europe
  • Leader in the arts
  • Military was strongest in Europe
  • Development of strong colonial system for trade
  • Negative
  • Debt
  • Unfair Tax structure – 1st/2nd Estates paid no taxes, ONLY 3rd Estate paid taxes reason for the French Revolution
  • Wars
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