Chapter 2 The Cell In Action

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Chapter 2 The Cell In Action. Section 1: Exchange with the Environment. An organism must be able to obtain energy and raw materials and get rid of wastes. An organisms' cells perform all of these functions.
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Chapter 2The Cell In ActionSection 1: Exchange with the EnvironmentAn organism must be able to obtain energy and raw materials and get rid of wastes. An organisms' cells perform all of these functions.The exchange of materials between a cell and its environment takes place at the cell’s membrane.What is Diffusion?The movement from areas of high concentration (crowded) to areas of low concentration (less crowded) is called diffusion.Cells do not need to use energy for diffusion.Website to viewVideo on diffusionDiffusion of WaterThe diffusion of water through cell membranes is so important to life’s processes that it has been given a special name – osmosis.Pure water has the highest concentration of water molecules.Over time, the water molecules move from the liquid with the high concentration of water molecules to the liquid with the lower concentration of water molecules.Semipermeablemeans that only certain substances can pass through.Osmosis is important to cell functions.Moving Small ParticlesThe movement of particles across a cell membrane without the use of energy is called passive transport.During passive transport, particles move from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. Diffusion and osmosis are examples of passive transport.A process of transporting particles that requires the cell to use energy is called active transport.Active transport usually involves the movement of particles from an area of low concentration to an area of high concentration.Endocytosis and exocytosis are examples of active transport.Moving Large ParticlesThe active transport process by which a cell surrounds a large particle and encloses the particle into the cell is called endocytosis.When large particles such as wastes, leave the cell, the sell uses an active transport process called exocytosis.Section 2: Cell EnergyPlants capture energy from the sun and change it into food through a process called photosynthesis.Plant cells have molecules that absorb light energy. These molecules are called pigments. Chlorophyll, the main pigment used in photosynthesis, gives plants their green color. Chlorophyll is found in chloroplasts.Plants use the energy captured by chlorophyll to change carbon dioxide and water into food.Animal cells have different ways of getting energy from food. One way, called cellular respiration, uses oxygen to break down food.
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