Introduction of Earthquake Engineering in Oil & Gas Indutry - Wikipedia

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Earthquake engineering - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Page 1 of 20 Earthquake engineering From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Earthquake engineering is the study of the behavior of buildings and structures subject to seismic loading. It is a subset of both structural and civil engineering. Eminent authority on seismic risk mitigation, Caltech professor George W. Housner is widely considered as the 'father' of the modern field of earthquake engineering. Stanford University professor John
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  Earthquake engineering   Shake-table crash testing of aregular building model (left)and a base-isolated buildingmodel (right) [4](http://www.youtube.com/watchv=kzVvd4Dk6sw&locale=en_Uat UCSD From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Earthquake engineering is the study of the behavior of buildings and structures subject to seismicloading. It is a subset of both structural and civil engineering. Eminent authority on seismic risk mitigation, Caltech professor George W. Housner is widely considered as the 'father' of the modern fieldof earthquake engineering. Stanford University professor John Blume’s contributions to the dynamics of structures have earned him the title of the 'father' of earthquake engineering too.The main objectives of earthquake engineering are:Understand the interaction between buildings or civil infrastructure and the ground. ■ Foresee the potential consequences of strong earthquakes on urban areas and civil infrastructure. ■ Design, construct and maintain structures to perform at earthquake exposure up to theexpectations and in compliance with building codes [1] . ■ A properly engineered structure does not necessarily have to be extremely strong or expensive.The most powerful and budgetary tools of earthquake engineering arevibration control technologies and, in particular, base isolation. Contents 1 Seismic loading ■ 2 Seismic performance ■ 2.1 Seismic performance evaluation ■ 2.2 Seismic performance analysis ■ 3 Research for earthquake engineering ■ 3.1 Major U.S. research programs ■ 3.2 Earthquake simulation ■ 3.3 Structure simulation ■ 4 Seismic vibration control ■ 4.1 Dry-stone walls control ■ 4.2 Lead Rubber Bearing ■ 4.3 Tuned mass damper ■ 4.4 Friction pendulum bearing ■ 4.5 Building elevation control ■ 4.6 Simple roller bearing ■ 4.7 Elevated building foundation ■ 4.8 Springs-with-damper base isolator ■ 4.9 Hysteretic damper ■ 5 Seismic design ■ 5.1 Seismic design requirements ■ 5.2 Failure modes ■ Page 1 of 20Earthquake engineering - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia8/3/2009http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Earthquake_engineering&printable=yes    Taipei 101, equipped withtuned mass damper, is theworld's second tallestskyscraper, after the BurjDubai.   The Last Day of Pompeii 6 Earthquake construction ■ 6.1 Adobe structures ■ 6.2 Limestone and sandstone structures ■ 6.3 Timber frame structures ■ 6.4 Light-frame structures ■ 6.5 Reinforced masonry structures ■ 6.6 Reinforced concrete structures ■ 6.7 Prestressed structures ■ 6.8 Steel structures ■ 7 Prediction of earthquake losses ■ 8 See also ■ 9 References ■ 10 External links ■ Seismic loading Seismic loading means application of an earthquake-generatedagitation to a structure. It happens at contact surfaces of a structureeither with the ground [11] (http://earthquake.geoengineer.org/) , orwith adjacent structures [12](http://www.civenv.unimelb.edu.au/ejse/Archives/Fulltext/2006/200608.pdf) , or with gravity wavesfrom tsunami. Seismic loading depends, primarily, on: (http://www.euro-house.ru/)Anticipated earthquake's parameters at the site ■ Geotechnical parameters of the site ■ Structure's parameters ■ Characteristics of the anticipated gravity waves from tsunami (if applicable). ■ Ancient builders believed that earthquakes were a result of wrath of Gods (in Greek mythology, e.g., the main Earth-Shaker wasPoseidon) and, therefore, could not be resisted by humans. Nowadays,the people's attitude has changed dramatically though the seismic loads,sometimes, exceed ability of a structure to resist them without beingbroken, partially or completely.Due to their mutual interaction, seismic loading and seismic performance of a structure are intimatelyrelated. Seismic performance Earthquake or seismic performance is an execution of a building's or structure's ability to sustain theirdue functions, such as its safety and serviceability, at  and after  a particular earthquake exposure. Astructure is, normally, considered safe if it does not endanger the lives and wellbeing of those in orPage 2 of 20Earthquake engineering - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia8/3/2009http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Earthquake_engineering&printable=yes    Snapshot from shake-tablevideo of a 6-story non-ductileconcrete building destructivetesting around it by partially or completely collapsing. A structure may be considered serviceable if it is able tofulfill its operational functions for which it was designed.Basic concepts of the earthquake engineering, implemented in the major building codes, assume that abuilding should survive The Big One (the most powerful anticipated earthquake) though with partialdestruction [2] . Seismic performance evaluation Engineers need to know the quantified level of an actual or anticipated seismic performance associatedwith the direct damage to an individual building subject to a specified ground shaking.The best way to do it is to put the structure on a shake-table that simulates the earth shaking and watchwhat may happen next [13] (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kc652Zp5qWk&feature=PlayList&p=F297EF2ADDEAD86C&index=182) . Such kinds of experiments were performed still more than a century ago [3] Another way is to evaluate the earthquake performance analytically. Seismic performance analysis Seismic performance analysis or, simply, seismic analysis is a majorintellectual tool of earthquake engineering which breaks the complextopic into smaller parts to gain a better understanding of seismicperformance of building and non-building structures. The technique asa formal concept is a relatively recent development.In general, seismic analysis is based on the methods of structuraldynamics [4] . For decades, the most prominent instrument of seismicanalysis has been the earthquake response spectrum method which,also, contributed to the proposed building code's concept of today [5] .However, those spectra are good, mostly, for single-degree-of-freedom systems. Numerical step-by-stepintegration proved to be a more effective method of analysis for multi-degree-of-freedom structuralsystems with severe non-linearity under a substantially transient process of kinematic excitation [6] . Research for earthquake engineering Research for earthquake engineering means both field and analytical investigation or experimentationintended for discovery and scientific explanation of earthquake engineering related facts, revision of conventional concepts in the light of new findings, and practical application of the developed theories.The National Science Foundation (NSF) is the main United States government agency that supportsfundamental research and education in all fields of earthquake engineering. In particular, it focuses onexperimental, analytical, and computational research on design and performance enhancement of structural systems.The Earthquake Engineering Research Institute (EERI) is a leader in dissemination of earthquakeengineering research related information both in the U.S. and globally.Page 3 of 20Earthquake engineering - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia8/3/2009http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Earthquake_engineering&printable=yes    Shake-table testing of FrictionPendulum Bearings(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eaat EERC   E-Defense Shake Table [5](http://www.youtube.com/watchv=y-mEDsqZK-I&feature=PlayList&p=660C7A A definitive list of earthquakeengineering research related shakingtables around the world may be foundin Experimental Facilities forEarthquake Engineering SimulationWorldwide(http://www.nea.fr/html/nsd/docs/2004/csni-r2004-10.pdf) . The mostprominent of them is now E-Defense Shake Table [7] in Japan. All earthquake engineering research activities worldwide are mostlyassociated with the following centers:Earthquake Engineering Research Institute (EERI) (http://www.eeri.org/site/) ■ Earthquake Engineering Research Center (http://eerc.berkeley.edu/) ■ Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center (PEER)(http://peer.berkeley.edu/news/2008/peer_transition_announcement.html) ■ John A. Blume Earthquake Engineering Center (http://blume.stanford.edu/) ■ Consortium of Universities for Research in Earthquake Engineering (CUREE)(http://www.curee.org/) ■ Multidisciplinary Center for Earthquake Engineering Research (MCEER)(http://mceer.buffalo.edu/About_MCEER/default.asp) ■ Earthquake Engineering Research Projects of CSUN(http://www.ecs.csun.edu/~shustov/CME_research.htm) ■ George E. Brown, Jr. Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation (http://www.nees.org/) ■ USGS Earthquake Hazards Program (http://earthquake.usgs.gov/learning/topics/index.php?topicID=52&topic=Engineering,+Earthquake) ■ Office of Earthquake Engineering at Caltrans (http://www.dot.ca.gov/hq/esc/earthquake_engineering/) ■ Earthquake Engineering Research Centre of Iceland (http://www.afl.hi.is/page/EnskaEERC) ■ Earthquake Engineering New Zealand(http://www.earthquakeengineering.com/news_events/articles/india.shtml) ■ Canadian Research Centers and Research Groups on Earthquake Engineering(http://www.caee.uottawa.ca/Canadian%20Research%20Centers/Canadian%20Research%20Centers.html/) ■ Hyogo Earthquake Engineering Research Center (http://www.bosai.go.jp/hyogo/ehyogo/) ■ Laboratory for Earthquake Engineering of NTUA(http://www.civil.ntua.gr/earthquake_gr/content_eng/research.php) ■ Earthquakes and Earthquake Engineering in The Library of Congress(http://www.loc.gov/rr/scitech/tracer-bullets/earthquakestb.html#intro) ■ International Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Seismology(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_Institute_of_Earthquake_Engineering_and_Seismology) ■ National Center for Research on Earthquake Engineering(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Center_for_Research_on_Earthquake_Engineering) ■ Major earthquake engineering research centers in the United Statesand worldwide Page 4 of 20Earthquake engineering - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia8/3/2009http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Earthquake_engineering&printable=yes
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