Monday Bell Ringer

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Monday Bell Ringer. W hat are the four different arrangements of performers for the concertato style ?. Baroque Vocal Music. UNIT 3 Part TWO. General trends in vocal music:.
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Monday Bell RingerWhat are the four different arrangements of performers for the concertato style?Baroque Vocal MusicUNIT 3 Part TWOGeneral trends in vocal music:
  • The baroque style of music began with the Italian interest in monody– that is, an emphasis on one principal melody rather than on the contrapuntal interweaving of several melodies characteristic of the Renaissance.
  • Since the monadic style grew out of an interest in the revival of ancient drama, it is not surpricsing that it led to the development of OPERA.
  • Some of the early composers of monody include:
  • Giulio Caccini (1546-1618)
  • Jacopo Peri (1561-1633)
  • Claudio Montverdi (1567-1643)
  • Early Composers of monody: Giulio Caccini
  • He was one of the first composers of monody.
  • He partnered with singer and composer Jacopo Peri to write his opera Euridice in 1600. Euridice is considered to be one of the first surviving operas.
  • Euridice contains choruses of singers, dancers, and recitatives (a technique that would become very popular in later Baroque opera where the singers would sing all of the dialogue).
  • Cacciniwas not only a composer but also a theorist. He explained his ideas of the monody style through his dissertation called Le nuovemusiche(“New Music”), which was published in 1602.
  • Caccini thought that monody should have one solo voice accompanied by a simple instrumental accompaniment made up of a chordal accompaniment and a basso continuo accompaniment.
  • Early composers of Monody: Claudio Monteverdi
  • The use of the monadic style and the compositional devices that is involved had an effect on many of the vocal works of the period.
  • Claudio Monteverdi wrote eight books discussing the progressions of the madrigal from the Renaissance to the Baroque Periods.
  • Some of the changes Monteverdi made to the Renaissance madrigal include: His madrigal style was called continuo madrigal
  • Using dissonance more frequently on strong beats
  • Reducing the number of vocal parts from 5 parts to 3 or less
  • The difference in the soprano and bass voice parts became apparent.
  • Opera:
  • One of the most popular musical inventions of the early 17th century was the special combination of drama and music that came to be known as opera.
  • Opera is basically a play in which the actors sing all or part of their lines accompanied by an orchestra.
  • Elaborate costumes and scenery were also a large part of the Operatic Production.
  • Opera: early development
  • The early operas featured the characteristics:
  • monody
  • Melody was subordinated to clear text
  • Small scale staged events
  • Based on stories from classical Mythology
  • The first public opera house opened in Venice, Italy in 1637.
  • Early Operas would include:
  • Giulio Caccini’sEuridice in 1600
  • Jacopo Peri’sDafne in 1597
  • Claudio Monteverdi’ s Orfeo in 1607.
  • By the middle of the 17th century, a distinct ion was made between two operatic styles of singing.
  • recitative
  • Aria
  • The music of the recitative was very simple with many repeated notes, while the rhythm tended to follow the flow of the words. The music was generally not as important as the text because recitative was the sung dialogue of the opera..
  • There are two types of recitative:
  • Recitativo secco(“dry recitative”) which was only accompanied by basso continuo.
  • Recitativo accompagno(“accompanied recitative”) which was accompanied by a larger orchestral ensemble.
  • The music of the aria followed the monadic style. The da capo aria was the favored style of the Baroque aria. The singer of the da capo aria would have two sections an A and a B. At the end of the B section, the singer would return to the A section and add ornamentations to it.
  • Opera: the Neapolitan Style
  • In Naples, a new style of opera was developing in the late 17th century.
  • The Neapolitan composers adopted a much more homophonic style in which the vocal melody was clearly dominant. This style of opera is described as being a more serious and elaborate operatic style and was named opera seria.
  • The opera seria style would eventually dominate the majority of European opera except for the opera of France.
  • Opera: Opera buffa
  • Nearly all early Italian opera had some comedic material used to break up the seriousness of the story but the Neapolitan style eliminated comedy from the opera seria style.
  • However, the comedic scenes the were taken out of the serious operas became their own independent form called opera buffa(“comic opera”).
  • The story material for the opera buffastyle came from everyday life. Composers would make fun of whatever was going on politically and socially in the world of common people. Because the opera buffastoryline was about the lives of common people, it was regarded at first as low-class entertainment. Later, is was gradually transformed into a higher form of entertainment in the works of Mozart and composers like him.
  • The tradition of opera buffawas developed in Europe during the 18th century.
  • Tuesday Bell ringerWhat are some characteristics of early opera?the Neapolitan style: Alessandro Scarlatti
  • The founder of Neapolitan opera is accredited to composer Alessandro Scarlatti (1660-1725). His style was heavily influenced by the Venetian composers, but by 1700 he had adopted his own style.
  • Scarlatti’s operas are known for their da capo arias, lyrical and virtuosic Italian melodies, and general elegance.
  • Scarlatti’s operas include:
  • Opera: the French style
  • Before the spread of the comic opera outside of Italy, serious opera had reached the rest of Europe. Only in France, however, did it develop a distinctively non-Italian style.
  • The French opera was accredited to composer Jean-Baptiste Lully (1632-1687). He set out to make opera a dramatic medium of as much dignity as the contemporary theater.
  • French drama had reached a high peak of excellence in the plays of Corneille, Racine, and Moliere.
  • The French style: jean Baptiste lully
  • Lully’s early operas were designed to please the king, therefore nearly all of the music was refined, stately, and pompous.
  • Lully’s operas typically began with a French overture (an orchestral form that Lully also developed). The overture would be followed by short simple arias unlike Italian opera arias.
  • His operas included several short scenes that would celebrate processions, dances, funerals, and combats.
  • The orchestration for the Neapolitan style operas was also more complex than that of the Italian style of opera.
  • Opera in england
  • Opera developed in England during the 17th century, influenced by both French and Italian opera styles, and also by English court entertainments such as the masque, which included dialogue, songs, dances, and instrumental music.
  • Important English opera composers would include:
  • Henry Purcell (1659-1695) – Dido and Aeneas in 1689
  • George Frideric Handel (1685-1759)– Julius Caesar in 1724
  • Purcell was not only a composer but also a playwright. King Arthur and The Fairy Queen are two of his plays.
  • Handel was known for his operas. Between 1712 and 1741 he wrote 36 operas total showing a mastery of the Neapolitan style.
  • Henry Purcell
  • Wrote plays: King Arthur and The Fairy Queen
  • Wrote one opera, Dido and Aeneas
  • The most famous aria from his opera is titled “When I am laid in earth” but is known as Dido’s lament
  • Many aspects of this opera include a perfect setting of English text to music. The opera emphasized choral music and dance.
  • George frideric HANDEL
  • Handel was not only a composer but also a violinist and keyboardist.
  • His opera, Julius Caesar, is a perfect example of the opera seria style. The opera was written in London and based on a libretto written by Nicola Francesco Haym.
  • This opera was a mixture of both French and Italian opera styles. It opened with a two-part French Overture but used the Italian style arias and recitative.
  • Wednesday Bell RingerWho is Henry Purcell? In a complete sentence include: his job titles, his famous works, and his famous aria.cantata
  • The Italians came up wit this kind of vocal composition first.
  • It consisted of:
  • Recitative and aria sections for one to three voices
  • Used basso continuo accompaniment
  • The standard cantata had an introductory sinfonia or overture, followed by a pattern of alternating recitatives and arias.
  • CantataItalian cantata composers include:German sacred cantata composers include:Heinrich Schultz (1585-1672)- used German counterpoint and Italian monadic style in his cantatasDeitrich Buxtehude (c.1637-1707)- used Lutheran chorales in his cantatasJohann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750)- 300 cantatas both religious and secular for soloists and choruses accompanied by a small orchestra or ensemble
  • Luigi Rossi (1597-1653)- 375 cantatas
  • GiacomoCarissimi (1605-1674)- 155 cantatas
  • Alessandro Scarlatti- 600 cantatas
  • Italian Cantata Composers:Luigi RossiGiacomoCarrissimoAlessandro ScarlattiGerman Cantata Composers:Dietrich BuxtehudeJ.S. BachHeinrich Schultzoratorio
  • The term oratorio (literally mean “place of prayer”) was first used for a chapel in Rome.
  • A common feature of these services was the singing of laude– allegorical “conversations” between God and the soul or heaven and hell.
  • The earliest surviving oratorio was composed by Emilio del Cavalieri (c.1550-1602) in 1600, Rappresentazione di anima e di corpo(“Representation of Soul and Body”).
  • Early Oratorios
  • Italian oratorios such as Carissimi’sJephte (1649) were sacred works with long narrative texts in Latin or Italian.
  • These performances generally did not have scenery or costumes. There was a narrator, a chorus, and an instrumental ensemble or small orchestra. The oratorio differed from the opera because it was not staged and it had a greater use of the chorus for narrative and dramatic purposes.
  • Handel’s Oratorios
  • Handel wrote many oratorios including Israel in Egypt (1739), Saul (1739), Judas Maccabaeus (1747), though his most well known would be the Messiah(1741).
  • He followed the structure developed by the Italians. The oratorio began with a French overtures followed by recitatives, arias, ariosos, and choruses. He also used a small orchestra made up of strings, winds, and timpani.
  • He used text painting, imitation, and other musical techniques to enhance the excitement and drama of his choruses.
  • The Messiah is divided into 3 parts:
  • The birth of Jesus
  • Jesus’ death and resurrection
  • Redemption of humanity
  • mass
  • With the growing interest in secular compositions and the fact that much of the new religious music was designed for use in the protestant church like the sacred cantata and the oratorio, the Mass became a relatively less important type of music.
  • Composers who worked for the Roman Catholic Church still produced unaccompanied polyphonic works much in the style of the late Renaissance Mass, but tried to change it up a bit by writing in more voice parts and also using orchestral accompaniment.
  • The Mass became longer and more elaborate in the Baroque period. Composers would divide the longer parts of the Ordinary into multi-movement works particularly the texts of the Gloria and the Credo.
  • The Lutheran Church in Germany continued to use parts of the Latin Ordinary, but polyphonic choral settings were only written for the Kyrie and Gloria. This kind of shortened setting of a Mass was called a Missabrevis(“short Mass”).
  • Johann Sebastian Bach wrote many Masses, only four setting of his many Masses were entitled Missabrevis, and of those four only one Missabreviswas a complete setting of the Ordinary of the Mass. This was his Mass in B minor.
  • THURSDAY BELL RINGERA. What is an oratorio? Name one composer and his greatest work?B. What is a cantata? Name one composer and his greatest work?C. What is an opera? Name one composer and his greatest work?D. What is the one major change in the Mass that occurs during the Baroque period?
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