Pentium 4 and IA-32 ISA

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Pentium 4 and IA-32 ISA. Kyungseok Kim. Nov. 3, 2006. ELEC 5200/6200 Computer Architecture and Design, Fall 2006 Lectured by Dr. V. Agrawal. IA-32 ISA (CISC). The term means Intel Architecture, 32-bit (sometimes called i386)
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Pentium 4 and IA-32 ISAKyungseok KimNov. 3, 2006ELEC 5200/6200 Computer Architecture and Design, Fall 2006 Lectured by Dr. V. AgrawalIA-32 ISA (CISC)
  • The term means Intel Architecture, 32-bit (sometimes called i386)
  • Instruction Set Architecture of Intel’s most successful microprocessors, called x86-32
  • 32-bit extension of the original Intel x86 processor architecture, 16-bit
  • 64-bit architecture IA-64, Itanium Architecture
  • IA-32 expanded by AMD in 2003 to support natively 64-bit, AMD64 (AMD K8 family)
  • IA-32e (NetBurst family, Intel Pentium4 and Xeon),
  • later called EM64T
  • AMD64 and EM64T are backwards compatible with 32-bit code without any performance loss
  • 1Real Mode-8086, 8088 in DOS-Addressing only the first 1MB of memory-Segment address + Offset address-Segment address: The beginning address of any 64KB memory segment-Offset address: Select any location within the 64KB Memory segmentTwo Memory Management2Protected Mode- 80286 and above in Windows, Linux and others- Allows the access to data and programs located above the first 1MB of memory- Descriptor decides the memory segment’s location, length, and access rights.Two Memory Management3Very small number of general purpose registers (approx. 4 integer plus 8 FP, versus 32+32 typical RISC)Small number of registers makes spilling more frequentAdvanced compiler techniques increase register pressure.Partial specialization of the registers makes effective compiler scheduling difficult.Registers4Classic CISC set derived from extended accumulator architectureImproved orthogonality in the 32-bit extensions (80386)Added FP capabilities previously on a coprocessor (80486)Added MultiMedia Extensions MMX as SIMD (single-instruction multiple-data) integer instructions (Pentium II)Added Streaming SIMD Extension SSE, most notably consisting of SIMD FP instructions (Pentium III)Added SSE2, essentially extension of MMX+SSE to 128 bits (Pentium 4)IA-32 Instructions, since mid-80’s5One instr. Coded on 1 to 17 bytes in original IA-32Several types of modifiers/ prefixesTwo combinations of constants of variable length -Immediate and Displacement -8, 16, and 32-bitInstruction Encoding6Intel Processors7Pentium 4
  • Seventh-Generation x86 architecture by Intel (NetBurst)
  • Very deep instruction pipeline with the intention of scaling to very high frequencies
  • The SSE2 instruction set for faster SIMD integer, and 64bit floating point
  • Later Pentium 4 models introduced new technological advances such as Hyper-Threading, a feature to make one physical CPU appear as two logical and virtual CPUs.
  • 8NetBurst Architecture9Conclusion
  • IA-32 is the oldest important ISA around
  • It is not absolutely fixed but constantly evolving with many new add-on
  • (MMX, SSE, SSE2, etc.)
  • Intel has managed to continue pushing the performance by adapting to its CICS nature the techniques developed to speed-up newer RISC Processors
  • IA-32 is evolving toward 64 bits
  • Reference
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