SSCD CORE ACADEMY 2012

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SSCD CORE ACADEMY 2012. “Now that it has become commonplace to teach academics to students with Down syndrome , we are beginning to learn more about how Down syndrome affects learning.” DeAnna Horstmeier , Ph.D. Characteristics of Individuals with Down Syndrome that Pose a Challenge to Math.
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Teaching Math to People with Down Syndrome by DeAnna Horstmeier, Ph.D.SSCD CORE ACADEMY 2012“Now that it has become commonplace to teach academics to students with Down syndrome , we are beginning to learn more about how Down syndrome affects learning.”DeAnnaHorstmeier, Ph.D.Teaching Math to People with Down Syndrome by DeAnna Horstmeier, Ph.D.Characteristics of Individuals with Down Syndrome that Pose a Challenge to Math
  • Problems with short-term and working memory
  • Fine motor delays in their hands and problems with eye-hand coordination
  • Difficulty processing information given orally
  • Insufficient experiences using math
  • Takes longer to process through the stages of development
  • So many experiences with frustration that some become no longer willing to try
  • Teaching Math to People with Down Syndrome by DeAnna Horstmeier, Ph.D.Characteristic Strengths of Individuals with Downs Syndrome
  • Eager to please
  • Learn very well through their visual senses
  • Able to communicate in other ways than speech
  • Go through the same developmental stages
  • Enjoy interacting with their peers and often model peer behavior
  • Teaching Math to People with Down Syndrome by DeAnna Horstmeier, Ph.D.Teaching Strategies That Work for Individuals with Down Syndrome
  • Emphasize visual learning
  • Use hands-on activities
  • Provide structured learning with some flexibility
  • Make learning relevant to the real world
  • Focus the student’s attention
  • Provide non-distracting written work
  • Give simple, clear instructions
  • Minimize fine motor demands
  • Teaching Math to People with Down Syndrome by DeAnna Horstmeier, Ph.D.Strategies (Continued)
  • Expect and encourage appropriate behavior
  • Ensure early success in the lesson
  • Consider the use of peer tutors
  • Facilitate short and long term memory
  • Use the calculator early and frequently
  • Make your interactions enjoyable
  • Use the computer
  • Break down the task into small steps
  • Teaching Math to People with Down Syndrome by DeAnna Horstmeier, Ph.D.Wisdom“Every time you introduce something new, you should be thinking about how you could help the student to do an activity that will help this new idea be understood.”Teaching Math to People with Down Syndrome by DeAnna Horstmeier, Ph.D.Positive Behavior SupportsNegative ResponsePositive ResponsePraise!Calmly point out what behavior was inappropriate Consistent follow-through on classroom rules is essential
  • Threat of lower grades is not an effective motivator
  • Punishment and ignoring inappropriate behavior is not an effective motivator
  • Children not able to connect their behavior with the consequence
  • Teaching Math to People with Down Syndrome by DeAnna Horstmeier, Ph.D.WisdomTo ensure early success in the math lesson:“Success is very important at every level of teaching for students with Down syndrome. The steps in teaching should be very small, and each one should be praised for effort, if not correctness.”Teaching Math to People with Down Syndrome by DeAnna Horstmeier, Ph.D.Short and Long-Term Memory
  • Facilitate short and long-term memory storage by using
  • Musical associations (familiar songs)
  • Rhythmic associations with concepts
  • Chanting
  • Concrete visualizations
  • Creative practice
  • Mnemonics
  • (Samples of each on page 29)Teaching Math to People with Down Syndrome by DeAnna Horstmeier, Ph.D.Wisdom“It is important to weave the skills you are teaching math into other parts of the academic day and into real life activities.”Teaching Math to People with Down Syndrome by DeAnna Horstmeier, Ph.D.Success Steps
  • Before each major learning activity, use a relatively easy activity related to the new skill, for the student to complete at the beginning of the lesson
  • The student should be able to do the skill
  • Do not hesitate to change the step to something you know the student can do well
  • Teaching Math to People with Down Syndrome by DeAnna Horstmeier, Ph.D.Peer Tutors
  • Study from the United Kingdom states:
  • The use of peer tutors for students 6th grade and up reported that peer instruction worked better than teacher assistance
  • In upper grade students are struggling for independence. Being helped by a friend is perceived better than a teacher aide
  • Teaching Math to People with Down Syndrome by DeAnnaHorstmeier, Ph.D.Use of the Calculator“Use of a calculator, along with a traditional math instructor, improved the average student’s ability to do pencil and paper calculations and to problem solve.”(Henbree and Dessuet 1986)“Use less paper and pencil, especially with numbers having more than two digits, and use more technology.”(The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics)Teaching Math to People with Down Syndrome by DeAnna Horstmeier, Ph.D.Use of the Calculator
  • Early and frequent use of the calculator can be a real asset to children who have difficulty with short term memory and rote learning
  • Tests show that children with Down syndrome have short digit span memories
  • They are visual and tactile learners who derive meaning from seeing the numeral and from touching them on the calculator
  • Using the calculator capitalizes on their sensory strengths
  • They do not do math ‘in their heads”
  • Fundamental skills need to be “overlearned” so that they come automatically and the student only has to think about how to apply thme
  • Teaching Math to People with Down Syndrome by DeAnna Horstmeier, Ph.D.Informal Assessment
  • The Informal Assessment given for diagnostic purposes , is very useful if you are not sure what the students math skills are.
  • There are no age norms or grade levels
  • There are Pre-Post Checklists
  • Scoring is simple and explicit
  • Teaching Math to People with Down Syndrome by DeAnnaHorstmeier, Ph.D.Activities and GamesTeaching Math to People with Down Syndrome by DeAnna Horstmeier, Ph.D.Drive By ConceptsPrenumber ConceptsNumber Sense Recognition of NumeralsMore Counting Skills Place ValueWriting Numerals Ordering & Comparing NumbersWhole Number Addition Whole Number Subtraction Time MeasurementShapes and Patterns MoneyStandards-based Mathematical Learning Teaching Math to People with Down Syndrome by DeAnna Horstmeier, Ph.D.Resource
  • Teaching Math to People with Down Syndrome and Other Hands-On Learners, Basic Survival Skills , Deanna Horstmeier, Ph.D., Woodbine House (2004).
  • Teaching Math to People with Down Syndrome by DeAnna Horstmeier, Ph.D.You are in the right place!We need you!Christine Timothy Utah State Office of EducationEducation SpecialistSensory and Significant DisabilitiesState NIMAS Coordinator801.538.7576christine.timothy@schools.utah.govTeaching Math to People with Down Syndrome by DeAnna Horstmeier, Ph.D.
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