WW1 Battle Notes

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WW1 Battle Notes. The Western Front. Alsace and Lorraine. Franco-Prussian War of 1870 1871 France surrenders France paid 5 billion francs ($1 billion) and gave up the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine France burning for Revenge!. Schlieffen (SHLEE*fuhn) Plan .
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WW1 Battle NotesThe Western FrontAlsace and LorraineFranco-Prussian War of 18701871 France surrendersFrance paid 5 billion francs ($1 billion) and gave up the provinces of Alsace and LorraineFrance burning for Revenge!Schlieffen (SHLEE*fuhn) Plan 2 front war with France and RussiaGermany army carry out rapid invasion of France by going through BelgiumAfter France defeated, German army go east against Russian troops (6 million of them)Plan for France was to sweep around Paris and surround most of the French armyBattle of Marne (September 6—10) German attack slowed by Belgian resistanceGerman army 30 miles from ParisParisian taxicabsFrench military leaders loaded over 2,000 taxis and sent troops to the front line at the MarneGerman flank exposed so they retreatTrench WarfareBoth French and Germans dig trenchesTrenches run from English Channel to SwitzerlandWestern Front becomes bogged down for remainder of war as no more outflankingLeads to permanent stalemate and a war of attrition= idea that the enemy must be worn down to the point of collapse by continuous lossesStalemate = a point where neither side can achieve victoryLife in trenches is miserable, mud, lice, trench foot, rats, et cetera Ypres, Flanders, Belgium (1914)First Battle at Ypres, Flanders, Belgium 1914After the Battle of MarneRace to the North Sea3 total battles in this regionKnown as the most damaged area in all of Europe during WW1Great Britain lost 86,000 menOne division lost 9,865 men(a division could have between 10-15,000 men) of which 372 were officers.Allied victoryFields of Flanders became infamous for loss of life, associated with poppiesBattle of Somme (River in France)Soldiers PrepareEach soldier carried 70 pounds of gearRifleAmmunitionGrenadesA shovelA mess kitWater bottleMade it very difficult to move quicklyGreat Britain launches attack on German troops, July 1, 1916Great Britain Plan15—25 miles of troops on FrontLaunch shells over towards German trenches in effort to wipe them outGermany had fortified the area with 3 rows of trenches, dugouts, shelters, and barbed wire stretched out acrossNo Man’s LandWhen German guns fell silent, GB left safety of their own trenches and attackedGB slaughtered: 21,000 dead on first day alone!French join their GB allies under General JoffreAfter 4 months of fighting:Heavy and relentless rains brought an end to the offensive. Clouds prevented aerial reconssince Although Allies gain between 5—7 miles of territory there is no clear victory Loses:1 million Allied and German soldiers lay dead or wounded:Great Britain: 400,000France: 200,000Germany: 400,000—500,000Battle of Verdun (France) 1916Symbolic of the “new kind of war”Kaiser Wilhelm (Germany)Key to victory was on the eastern front because the Russian Revolution was near.Believed that if he defeated France, Britain would seek reconciliationVerdun is an old fortress city and France’s “line in the sand”Germany attacks France at Verdun with 500,000 troopsFrench troops supplied by one truck every 14 seconds Day and Night!War of Attrition10 months of fighting Only a few miles of land changed handsFutile loss of life= Thousands of wounded soldiers left to die because not enough medical careFrench and German700,000 deaths460,000 were FrenchWW1 Battle NotesEastern FrontEastern FrontTannenberg (August 1915)Gallipoli (April 1915)Central Powers victory in the Balkans region
  • Russians defeated, no longer threat to Germans
  • United States Enters WarApril 1917Lusitania & Zimmerman Telegram“New Kind of War” (Thank you IR)
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